Outputs

MENAdrought in Jordan: Strengthening capabilities to manage drought risk


Jordan is one of the most water-scarce countries in the world. With an annual per capita water availability of approximately 100 m³, the country’s freshwater supplies fall considerably below the global benchmark of ‘absolute scarcity’ (established at 500 m³). Studies reveal that the 1998–2001 dry period in Jordan was more severe than any other in the past 500 years, and climate change will no doubt lead to more droughts. The MENAdrought project uses an approach based on three pillars to improve drought risk management.

 

MENAdrought in Lebanon: Strengthening capabilities to manage drought risk


Lebanon is water-rich compared to other countries in the MENA region, so historically drought risk management hasn’t been a government priority. However, the intense droughts of 1998–2001, 2008, and especially 2013–2014 had widespread socioeconomic impacts and served as a wake-up call. In 2014, Lebanon received only half its annual average rainfall, reducing the volume of water available in rivers and aquifers. The MENAdrought project uses an approach based on three pillars to improve drought risk management.

 

MENAdrought in Morocco: Strengthening capabilities to manage drought risk


The series of droughts in Morocco since the 1970s is indicative of a long-term drying trend. Climate projections call for a warmer and drier future, which strengthens the imperative for improved drought management. Morocco is particularly vulnerable to drought impacts because its economy and labor force are highly dependent on agriculture. Farmers working with livestock and rainfed cereals are the most exposed to drought impacts. The MENAdrought project uses an approach based on three pillars to improve drought risk management.

 

Enhanced Composite Drought Index (eCDI) supports drought early warning


The MENAdrought project has developed a drought monitoring product that integrates satellite and model data on rainfall, land surface temperature, soil moisture, and vegetation health – all compiled into an enhanced Composite Drought Index (eCDI). The color-coded maps allow decision makers to identify an emerging drought. National agencies run the entire process so that they can make use of the information to direct early mitigation efforts, helping stave off some of the more severe impacts of drought.

 

Developing drought action plans


The MENAdrought project is working with the governments of Jordan, Lebanon and Morocco to develop drought action plans (DAPs). The project works ‘with the grain’ to help agencies consider what drought impacts are most important for them to address first, from their point of view, and how to do so with the available resources, policy context and constraints they face. The DAP development process was undertaken through a policy analysis approach and focused on an assessment of underlying problems and the most practicable and useful manner for policy interventions to address those problems.

 

Developing an operational enhanced Composite Drought Index (eCDI) to support drought early warning in the Middle East and North Africa region


Experts predict that conditions will become drier and hotter across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as climate change progresses. The MENAdrought project aims to provide Jordan, Lebanon and Morocco (countries in the MENA region) with the tools they need to anticipate, prepare for and mitigate the impacts of drought going forward.

English version   |   Arabic version

 

MENAdrought Synthesis of Drought Vulnerability in Lebanon


This report summarizes MENAdrought findings on the underlying causes of vulnerability to drought impacts in Lebanon. It serves as a link between the impact assessment and policy planning process.

The objective of the vulnerability studies has been to identify who or what is at risk from drought, what causes that risk, and the effects of how actors manage that risk. This can inform drought management planning so that interventions target underlying causes of vulnerability for the identified communities and systems.

 

MENAdrought Synthesis of Drought Vulnerability in Jordan


This report summarizes MENAdrought findings on the underlying causes of vulnerability to drought impacts in Jordan. It serves as a link between the impact assessment and policy planning process.

The objective of the vulnerability studies has been to identify who and what is at risk from drought, what causes that risk, and the effects of how actors manage that risk. This can inform drought management planning so that interventions target underlying causes of vulnerability for the identified communities and sectors.

 

Research Series Issue 66: Can perceptions of reduction in physical water availability affect irrigation behaviour? Evidence from Jordan


Frequent droughts and rapidly depleting groundwater reserves have deepened the water scarcity crisis in Jordan. Even though most farms use ‘water-saving’ technologies, groundwater depletion continues at an alarming rate.

 

 

Reducing the impacts of drought in Jordan


Climate disruption is making droughts more likely in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, with related detrimental impacts on water and food security. Jordan is already one of the most water-scarce countries in the world. The MENAdrought project aims to empower decisionmakers and practitioners in Jordan with the tools and action plans needed to anticipate, prepare for and mitigate the worst impacts of drought.

English version   |   Arabic version

 

 

Reducing the impacts of drought in Lebanon


As climate change disrupts historical weather patterns, droughts are increasingly likely to have detrimental impacts on water and food security in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Despite its generally wetter conditions, Lebanon’s water security is challenged by various ongoing issues. The MENAdrought project aims to empower Lebanon with the tools to anticipate, prepare for and mitigate the worst impacts of drought.

English version   |   Arabic version

 

 

Reducing the impacts of drought in Morocco


As climate change disrupts historical weather patterns, droughts are increasingly likely to have detrimental impacts on water and food security in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. In Morocco, the change is already noticeable. Since the 1970s, extreme drought has become a more regular element of Morocco’s climate. The MENAdrought project aims to empower Morocco with the tools to anticipate, prepare for and mitigate the worst impacts of drought.

English version   |   Arabic version

 

 

Drought Monitoring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region


Citation
Fragaszy, S. R.; Jedd, T.; Wall, N.; Knutson, C.; Belhaj Fraj, M.; Bergaoui, K.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M.; McDonnell, Rachael. 2020. Drought monitoring in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: participatory engagement to inform early warning systems. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), 101(7):E1148-E1173. [doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0084.1]

 

 

Drought Management Norms: Is the Middle East and North Africa Region Managing Risks or Crises?


Citation
Theresa Jedd, Stephen Russell Fragaszy, Cody Knutson, Michael J. Hayes, Makram Belhaj Fraj, Nicole Wall, Mark Svoboda, and Rachael McDonnell [doi.org/10.1177/1070496520960204]

 

 

Media Coverage

Strengthening Drought Monitoring Across the Middle East and North Africa

In one of the world’s most water-stressed regions, USAID and partners are helping create more resilient communities by preparing them to stay one step ahead of the next drought.

 

 

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